Academic Vocabulary
(Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency)

Content Words
These are the key vocabulary words, terms and concepts associated with a particular topic being taught (e.g, for the American Revolutionary War: Readcoats, democracy, Patriots, freedom of religion, Shot Heard Round the World, Paul Revere, etc.)

Process/Function Words
These are the words that have to do with the functional language (e.g., how to request information, justify opinions, state a conclusion, etc.), language used in the classroom for processes and tasks (e.g., share with a partner, discuss, line up, graph, list classify, etc.), and language processes (e.g., scan, skim, question, debate, argue, summarize, etc.) Other kinds of words that are included in this category include transition words (therefore, in conclusion, moreover, furthermore, etc.), and sequence words (first, then, next, finally, at last, etc.).

Words and word parts that teach English structure
These are words that enable students to learn new vocabulary, primarily based upon English morphology. It is suggested that students in grade 12 know about 175,000 words with roots; of these, about 15,000 are known by a majority of students. Additionally, students in grade 6 acquire approximately 800-1200 root words per year. There is no way that ELLs can realistically learn all the words they need to know through instruction and memorization. Therefore, all teachers should help students learn that many English words are formed with root and base words joined to prefixes and suffixes. For example, if a science teacher is teaching photosynthesis, he can help students learn the meaning of the root photo- (light). By comparing the word photosyntheses, photocopy, photograph, photography, photoelectron, photofinish, and photogenic, students can see how these words are related by both spelling and meaning. (Bear, Invernizzi, Templeton, &Johnston, 2007)

Taken from Making Content Comprehensible for Secondary English Learners: The SIOP Model
Echevarria, Vogt and Short, 2010